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Nutrition and metabolic syndrome.

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Author(s): Albornoz López, Raúl | Pérez Rodrigo, Iciar

Journal: Nutrición Clínica y Dietética Hospitalaria
ISSN 0211-6057

Volume: 32;
Issue: 3;
Start page: 92;
Date: 2012;
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Keywords: Metabolic syndrome | insulin resistance | dietary carbohydrates | mediterranean diet | dietary fats.

ABSTRACT
The metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The exact etiology is unclear, although it is known thatthere is a complex interaction between genetic, metabolic and environmental factors. Among the environmental factors, dietary habits play an important role in the treatment and prevention of this condition. General classic recommendations include control of obesity, increased physical activity, decreased intake of saturated fat and cholesterol, reduced intake of simple sugars and increased intake of fruits and vegetables. It has been studied the influence of diets low in carbohydrates, diets rich in polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, fiber intake, the Mediterranean diet and the glycemic index in relation to metabolic syndrome.Other nutrients recently studied are the micronutrients (magnesium and calcium), soy and other phytochemicals. Evidence suggests that a healthy diet like the Mediterranean protects against metabolic syndrome,caracterized for a low content in saturated and trans fat, high in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, balanced intake of carbohydrates and high in fiber, fruits and vegetables. There is more controversy about the type of diet of choice for the control ofmetabolic syndrome (low-carbohydrate diets or lowfat), needing more studies on the role of soy and other phytochemicals.
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