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Phylogenetic lineages in the Botryosphaeriales: a systematic and evolutionary framework

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Author(s): B. Slippers | E. Boissin | A.J.L. Phillips | J.Z. Groenewald | L. Lombard | M.J. Wingfield | A. Postma | T. Burgess | P.W. Crous

Journal: Studies in Mycology
ISSN 0166-0616

Volume: 76;
Issue: 1;
Start page: 31;
Date: 2013;
Original page

Keywords: Aplosporellaceae | Melanopsaceae | molecular dating | Phyllostictaceae | Planistromellaceae | Saccharataceae | systematics

ABSTRACT
The order Botryosphaeriales represents several ecologically diverse fungal families that are commonly isolated as endophytes or pathogens from various woodyhosts. The taxonomy of members of this order has been strongly influenced by sequence-based phylogenetics, and the abandonment of dual nomenclature. In this study, thephylogenetic relationships of the genera known from culture are evaluated based on DNA sequence data for six loci (SSU, LSU, ITS, EF1, BT, mtSSU). The results makeit possible to recognise a total of six families. Other than the Botryosphaeriaceae (17 genera), Phyllostictaceae (Phyllosticta) and Planistromellaceae (Kellermania), newlyintroduced families include Aplosporellaceae (Aplosporella and Bagnisiella), Melanopsaceae (Melanops), and Saccharataceae (Saccharata). Furthermore, the evolution ofmorphological characters in the Botryosphaeriaceae were investigated via analysis of phylogeny-trait association. None of the traits presented a significant phylogeneticsignal, suggesting that conidial and ascospore pigmentation, septation and appendages evolved more than once in the family. Molecular clock dating on radiations within theBotryosphaeriales based on estimated mutation rates of the rDNA SSU locus, suggests that the order originated in the Cretaceous period around 103 (45–188) mya, withmost of the diversification in the Tertiary period. This coincides with important periods of radiation and spread of the main group of plants that these fungi infect, namely woodyAngiosperms. The resulting host-associations and distribution could have influenced the diversification of these fungi.
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