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Poczucie znajomości i zjawisko mam na końcu języka u chorych na schizofrenię

Author(s): Ewa Małgorzata Szepietowska | Anna Oroń

Journal: Neuropsychiatria i Neuropsychologia
ISSN 1896-6764

Volume: 3;
Issue: 2;
Start page: 60;
Date: 2008;
Original page

Keywords: metamemory | semantic memory | feeling-of-knowing | tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon | schizophrenia

Introduction: Research on the metacognitive processesof persons with schizophrenia focuses on the analysis ofthe condition of the memory and the control-monitoringprocesses, deficits in which can become a cause ofdisturbances of consciousness of their own cognitivelimitations. Disturbances of episodic memory arediscussed here, and also deficits in access to the contentof semantic memory as well as its disintegration, anddeficits of the control-monitoring processes. The analysisof the feeling-of-knowing (FOK) phenomenon andtip-of-the-tongue phenomenon (TOT), and also of feelingof remembering (I remember), allows one to define theessence of the nature of these metacognitive problemsand to make a conclusion about disturbances of theneuronal basis of these processes. These are the aims ofthis research: a comparison of the effect of reminders ofsemantic information on persons with schizophrenia andon persons in good mental condition, including theanalysis of the FOR, FOK and TOT phenomena, whichare considered as pointers for the condition of thememory and processes of cognitive regulation;a definition of the factors which modify the results ofpatients with schizophrenia and the control group.Material and methods: Thirty ill people with paranoidschizophrenia in the phase of remission, and thirtypeople as a control group participated in the research.A technique of remembering 15 words in answer to3 different signals (cues) of remembering was used. Theanswers were recorded as: I remember, I don’t know (it),and also FOK and TOT. In the case of occurrences ofFOK or TOT a technique for their further recognitionwas used. The correct identifications were marked asFOK+ or TOT+; the wrong ones as FOK– or TOT–.Results: Those suffering from schizophrenia gave fewercorrect answers, but more often showed a lack of abilityto actualize information, and used TOT less frequently.Among people who were ill longer and were older, theillusion of knowing increased, and the number of answers I don’t know decreased. They were more sure of theirreplies.Conclusions: The data show the deficit of semanticmemory of patients with schizophrenia. The pattern ofresults in this case is different from the results of peoplesuffering from Alzheimer’s disease or with pathology ofthe frontal lobes.
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