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PREVALENCE OF DRUG-RESISTANT STRAINS OF STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE IN ABAKALIKI

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Author(s): Iroha Ifeanyichukwu Romanus | Okafor Florence Njideka | Nwakaeze Emmanuel Amobi | Oji Anthonia Egwu | Afiukwa Felicitas Ngozi | Nwosu Okechukwu Kenneth | Ayogu Thomas Eze | Oladimeji Sikiru

Journal: American Journal of Infectious Diseases
ISSN 1553-6203

Volume: 8;
Issue: 3;
Start page: 123;
Date: 2012;
Original page

Keywords: Prevalence | S. Pneumoniae | Resistance | Sputum

ABSTRACT
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of illness such as pneumonia, meningitis, bacteremia and otitis media in children and the elderly. The emergence of drug-resistant strains threatens to complicate the management of these diseases. We conducted a hospital-based surveillance for drug-resistant Strep. Pneumoniae in outpatients with pneumococcal infection in Abakaliki Ebonyi State Nigeria. Between 2003-2005 from January through December, a cross-sectional study was conducted in Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital (EBSUTH) Abakaliki to assess the prevalence of drug resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from sputum samples of patients with pneumococcal infections attending the outpatient clinics. A total of 305 sputum samples of patients with clinically diagnosed pneumonia were collected and inoculated on 5% sheep-blood agar, incubated at 35°C for 24 h in 5-10% CO2. Colonies were Gram-stained; alpha-hemolysis colonies were tested with a 6mm optochin disk followed by bile solubility test. Susceptibility testing panels of the following antibiotics: penicillin, ciprofloxacin, clavulanic acid/amoxicillin, septrin, erythromycin, gentamycin, clarithromycin, cefotaxime and cefuroxime were tested against isolated strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae using disc diffusion method. Of the 305 sputum samples collected 30 (9.8%) of S. pneumoniae was isolated from patients within the age range of 20-40 years, 140 (45.9%) from patients within 41-60, 135(44.2%) from patients within 60 years and above. Susceptibility studies showed that the highest resistance was 182 (59.6%), for penicillin followed by septrin 156 (51.2%), erythromycin 120(39.3%), clavulanic/amoxicillin 118(38.7%) cefotaxime 114(37.4%) clarithromycin 100(32.7%), ciprofloxacin 94(30.8%), gentamycin 75(24.6%), cefuroxime 70(22.9%) and ceftriaxone 69(22.6%). The prevalence of S. pneumoniae resistance was relatively high and we suggest that proper antibiotics use should be adopted to avert development of multi-drug resistant strains in future.
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