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A Rapid, Multiplexed, High-Throughput Flow-Through Membrane Immunoassay: A Convenient Alternative to ELISA

Author(s): Sujatha Ramachandran | Mitra Singhal | Katherine G. McKenzie | Jennifer L. Osborn | Amit Arjyal | Sabina Dongol | Stephen G. Baker | Buddha Basnyat | Jeremy Farrar | Christiane Dolecek | Gonzalo J. Domingo | Paul Yager | Barry Lutz

Journal: Diagnostics
ISSN 2075-4418

Volume: 3;
Issue: 2;
Start page: 244;
Date: 2013;
Original page

Keywords: flow-through membrane immunoassay (FMIA) | enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) | multiplex | indirect IgM assay | Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi | typhoid | serodiagnosis | low resource setting

This paper describes a rapid, high-throughput flow-through membrane immunoassay (FMIA) platform. A nitrocellulose membrane was spotted in an array format with multiple capture and control reagents for each sample detection area, and assay steps were carried out by sequential aspiration of sample and reagents through each detection area using a 96-well vacuum manifold. The FMIA provides an alternate assay format with several advantages over ELISA. The high surface area of the membrane permits high label concentration using gold labels, and the small pores and vacuum control provide rapid diffusion to reduce total assay time to ~30 min. All reagents used in the FMIA are compatible with dry storage without refrigeration. The results appear as colored spots on the membrane that can be quantified using a flatbed scanner. We demonstrate the platform for detection of IgM specific to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) derived from Salmonella Typhi. The FMIA format provides analytical results comparable to ELISA in less time, provides integrated assay controls, and allows compensation for specimen-to-specimen variability in background, which is a particular challenge for IgM assays.
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