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Retinoids: An overview of clinical applications in Dermatology

Author(s): Archana J | Vijaya Bhargavi Ch

Journal: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research
ISSN 0975-1459

Volume: 2;
Issue: 7;
Start page: 376;
Date: 2010;
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Keywords: Retinoic acid receptor (RAR) | Retinoid X receptor (RXR) | Hyperkeratinization | pleiotropic effects | teratogenicity

Retinoids comprise a family of polyisoprenoid lipids that include vitamin A and its various natural and synthetic analogues. Although retinoids are having diversified clinical uses, they are important in dermatology as their main effect is on growth and normal differentiation of epithelial cells. Each retinoid has its own profile of pharmacological properties that determines its usefulness in clinical dermatology. Due to the existence of different types of retinoid receptors, response elements and cofactors, retinoid physiology is mediated by multiple discrete pathways and is highly complex. As a result, receptor selective retinoids are being developed which have more focused and targeted action and are likely to have a better therapeutic index. Oral retinoids such as isotretinoin andetretinate have promising results in the treatment of severe skin diseases like chronic acne, Darier’s disease, rosacea and lupus erythematosus. Topical retinoids like tretinoin, tazarotene and adapalene are useful in number of skin diseases such as psoriasis, cutaneous lichen planus, melasma and many more. The development of receptor specific retinoids for topical treatment of psoriasis and/or acne may lead to interesting new compounds based on our currentconcepts of retinoid function. The major adverse effect of retinoids is teratogenicity; all other adverse effects are dose-dependent and controllable.

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