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Size scales for closed depression landforms: the place of tiankengs

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Author(s): White, W.B. | White, E.L.

Journal: Speleogenesis and Evolution of Karst Aquifers
ISSN 1814-294X

Volume: 4;
Issue: 1;
Start page: 3300;
Date: 2006;
Original page

Keywords: collapse | doline | tiankeng

ABSTRACT
Development of large collapse structures in karstic terrain requires an interaction between mechanical instability and chemical removal of collapsed rock. Upward migration of pre-existing voids can choke out if there is no mechanism for the efficient removal of fallen blocks. Rates of dissolution, size of initial cavity, and overlying bedrock characteristics determine the size of the final surface landform. Collapse features range in scale from small sinkholes to hundreds of meters in such features as the Golondrinas collapse pit in Mexico. Tiankengs are interpreted as end members features on a continuous scale.
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