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Soft combustion technique: Solution combustion synthesis and low-temperature combustion synthesis; to prepare Bi4Ti3O12 powders and bulk ceramics

Author(s): Al-Amani Umar | Sreekantan S. | Fauzi Ahmad M.N. | Khairunisak A.R. | Warapong K.

Journal: Science of Sintering
ISSN 0350-820X

Volume: 44;
Issue: 2;
Start page: 211;
Date: 2012;
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Keywords: Bi4Ti3O12 | combustion synthesis | grain orientation | dielectric | ferroelectric

Bi4Ti3O12 (BTO) powders were synthesized using soft combustion techniques, specifically known as Solution Combustion Synthesis (SCS) and Low-temperature Combustion Synthesis (LCS). XRD results showed that the single phase BTO was obtained following calcinations at 800ºC for the sample prepared using SCS; compared to after combustion, for the sample prepared using LCS. The TG/DTA showed a combustion temperature of around 252 - 280ºC, which became stable with a single phase BTO at 500ºC and above. Sintering was carried out at 1,100ºC for 3 h, to determine the microstructures, grain orientation, relative density, dielectric, and ferroelectric properties, of the bulk ceramics. It was found that the bulk ceramics prepared using SCS exhibited elongated-like grains, strong (117)-preferred grain orientation, a relative density of 93.3%, εr = 320 - 360, tan δ = 0.03 - 0.1, Pr = 6.8 μC/cm2, and Ec = 20 kV/cm. Meanwhile, the bulk ceramics prepared using LCS showed plate-like grains, strong c-preferred grain orientation, a relative density of 83%, εr = 143 - 195, tan δ = 0.01 - 0.38, Pr = 5.9 μC/cm2, and Ec = 30 kV/cm.

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