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The spatial distribution of esophageal and gastric cancer in Caspian region of Iran: An ecological analysis of diet and socio-economic influences

Author(s): Mohebbi Mohammadreza | Wolfe Rory | Jolley Damien | Forbes Andrew | Mahmoodi Mahmood | Burton Robert

Journal: International Journal of Health Geographics
ISSN 1476-072X

Volume: 10;
Issue: 1;
Start page: 13;
Date: 2011;
Original page

Abstract Recent studies have suggested a systematic geographic pattern of esophageal cancer (EC) and gastric cancer (GC) incidence in the Caspian region of Iran. The aims of this study were to investigate the association between these cancers and the region's dietary and socioeconomic risk factors and to map EC and GC after adjustment for the risk factors and the removal of random and geographic variations from area specific age standardised incidence ratios (SIRs). We obtained cancer data from the Babol cancer registry from 2001 to 2005, socioeconomic indices from the Statistical Centre of Iran, and dietary patterns from the control group in a case control study conducted in the study region. Regression models were fitted to identify significant covariates, and clusters of elevated rates were identified. We found evidence of systematic clustering for EC and GC in men and women and both sexes combined. EC and GC SIRs were lower in urban areas, and were also lower in areas of high income. EC SIRs were lower in areas with higher proportions of people having unrestricted food choice and higher in areas with higher proportions of people with restricted food choice. EC and GC were associated with aggregated risk factors, including income, urbanisation, and dietary patterns. These variables represent the influence of improved lifestyle which has coincided with a decrease in upper gastrointestinal cancer frequency over recent decades but which has not necessarily been uniform throughout the region.
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