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Studies on the Extraction of Chitin and Chitosan from Different Aquatic Organisms

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Author(s): Vani.R | Shaleesha.A.Stanley

Journal: Advanced Biotech
ISSN 0973-0109

Volume: 12;
Issue: 12;
Start page: 12;
Date: 2013;
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Keywords: Chitin | Chitosan | Bivalve | Demineralisation | Deproteinization | Deacetylation H-NMR.

ABSTRACT
Chitin is a natural biopolymer with a chemical structure similar to that of cellulose and is a major component of the exoskeleton of invertebrates. This study involves the extraction of chitin from different shelled aquatic organisms by chemical extraction method. The exoskeleton samples of aquatic organisms include Gecarcoidea natalis(Red crab),Cyrenoida floridana(Bivalves) Penaeus indicus(Indian white shrimp), Abra alba(Bivalves). This method uses inorganic acids for demineralisation step, alkali for deproteinisation step and eacetylation. Results showed that chitin, was found at highly significant level (64%) in the bivalve, Cyrenoida floridana followed by Red crab,Gecarcoidea natalis (45%) and approximately 31% for Penaeus indicus (Indian white shrimp) and the Bivalve, Abra alba. The obtained chitin was transformed into most useful soluble chitosan by deacetylation and it was found to be higher (97%) in the bivalve, Abra alba followed by Indian white shrimp Paneous indicus (92%) and approximately (60-70%) for Gecarcoidea natalis (Red crab) and the Bivalve (Cyrenoida floridana). The chitin 1extracted from the samples were characterized for the reducing ends and chemical shifts using H-NMR spectroscopy and xistence of chitin was confirmed.
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