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A taxonomic and phylogenetic revision of the Penicillium sclerotiorum complex

Author(s): K.G. Rivera | K.A. Seifert

Journal: Studies in Mycology
ISSN 0166-0616

Volume: 70;
Issue: 1;
Start page: 139;
Date: 2011;
Original page

Keywords: DNA barcoding | multigene phylogeny | sclerotia | soil-borne hyphomycetes

The morphological concept of Penicillium sclerotiorum (subgenus Aspergilloides) includes strains with monoverticillate, vesiculate conidiophores, and vivid orange to red colony colours, with colourful sclerotia sometimes produced. Multigene phylogenetic analyses with the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1), β-tubulin (benA), translation elongation factor 1-α (tef1-α), and calmodulin (cmd), reveal that the P. sclerotiorum morphospecies is a complex of seven phylogenetically distinct species, three of which were recently described, namely P. guanacastense, P. mallochii, and P. viticola. Three previously unidentified species are described here as P. cainii, P. jacksonii, and P. johnkrugii. The phylogenetic species are morphologically similar, but differ in combinations of colony characters, sclerotium production, conidiophore stipe roughening and branching, and conidial shape. Ecological characters and differences in geographical distribution further characterise some of the species, but increased sampling is necessary to confirm these differences. The fungal DNA barcode, the ITS, and the animal DNA barcode, cox1, have lower species resolving ability in our phylogenetic analyses, but still allow identification of all the species. Tef1-α and cmd were superior in providing fully resolved, statistically well-supported phylogenetic trees for this species complex, whereas benA resolved all species but had some issues with paraphyly. Penicillium adametzioides and P. multicolor, considered synonyms of P. sclerotiorum by some previous authors, do not belong to the P. sclerotiorum complex.
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